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Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS)-Model

Climate and air qualityAir Pollutionclimate changeemissionsair pollutant emissions

policy support

policy role

The model is designed to contribute to the following policy areas: 

  • Climate action through mitigation potentials for non-CO2 GHGs and Black Carbon
  • Climate action through harnessing health co-benefits
  • Public health through air pollution exposure levels
  • Ecosystem protection through critical loads 

GAINS is used for policy analyses under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), e.g., for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol, and by the European Commission for the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution and the air policy review, and it was among the models used to inform the EC proposal “A Clean Planet for All” (COM (2018) 773). GAINS is used to assess domestic mitigation potential of non-CO2 GHGs for EU climate policy analyses. Scientists and government agencies in many nations (e.g., in Europe, China, India, Vietnam) use GAINS as a tool to assess emission reduction potentials in their regions.

In "scenario analysis" mode, it follows emission pathways from sources to impacts, providing estimates of regional costs and the environmental benefits of alternative emission control strategies.

In “optimization” mode, GAINS identifies cost-optimal portfolios of emission control measures for achieving specified targets, such as absolute emission limits, or health impacts.

policy cycle

This model contribute to the following policy cycle

policy areas

This model can contribute to the following policy areas

Agriculture and rural development
Banking and financial services
Borders and security
Business and industry
Climate action
Culture and media
Digital economy and society
EU enlargement
Economy, finance and the euro
Education and training
Employment and social affairs
European neighbourhood policy
Food safety
Foreign affairs and security policy
Fraud prevention
Home affairs
Humanitarian aid and civil protection
Institutional affairs
International cooperation and development
Justice and fundamental rights
Maritime affairs and fisheries
Migration and asylum
Public health
Regional policy
Research and innovation
Single market

impact assessments

This model supported the ex-ante impact assessments of the European Commission listed below.

  1. 26 October 2022
  2. 14 July 2021
  3. 14 July 2021
  4. 14 July 2021
  5. 17 September 2020